Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Ceramic Mosaic

1. What advancements and accomplishments did Islams golden age give to the rest of society?

Muslims were at the forefront of discoveries in ophthalmology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, chemistry and pharmaceuticals during the Islamic Renaissance. Great advances were also made in astronomy and mathematics, as well as in architecture, art and literature. Famous Muslims from the Islamic Golden Age A large number of Muslims made historical achievements during the Islamic Renaissance. Only a few are listed below. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, regarded as the "father of modern surgery," invented and documented more than two hundred surgical instruments. He was also a pioneer in the use of anesthesia. Abu Ali al-Hasan (Alhazen) is famous for his groundbreaking work in the field of optics. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi developed algebra and algorithms. Ibn al-Nafis was the first person to accurately describe the human circulatory system. He also authored Islamic texts and the first work of science fiction, Theologus Autodidactus. Abu Bakr al-Razi, the "father of pediatrics," wrote the first book which specialized in childhood diseases. He also discovered the relationship between bacteria and infections, and initiated the use of antiseptics to clean wounds. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) compiled the famous 14-volume medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine (the Qanun). Completed in 1025, The Canon of Medicine remained a medical standard in the West up until the early 19th century. The Islamic world's heightened interest in learning during the Middle Ages resulted in significant achievements in many fields. Frequently cited contributions of the Golden Age include: The world's oldest degree-issuing university, Al-Karaouine, was established in Fez in 859 and the first full university, Al Azhar, opened in Cairo in 975. Distillation, filtration, crystallization, evaporation and other chemical processes were introduced by Muslim alchemists. The first pharmacies were established in Baghdad in the 8th century. Spherical trigonometry, analytical geometry, integral calculus and many other advances were made by Muslim mathematicians. Many masterpieces of Islamic architecture were built, including the Alhambra in Granada (Spain), the Great Mosque of Xi'an (China), the Great Mosque at Cordoba (Spain), and the Great Mosque of Samarra (Iraq). The world's first observatories, public hospitals, psychiatric institutions and universities emerged in the medieval Islamic world. The renowned work of Arabic fiction, One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), took shape between the 10th and 14th centuries. Exquisite works of Islamic art were produced in ceramics, woodworking, painting, calligraphy, carpet making, mosaics and more.


2. name some good hobbies???

almost any kind of leisure activities can become a hobby. Most hobbies fall into one of the four-gerneral categories, which may overlap. They are 1) the arts,2)collecting,3) handicrafts and 4) sports & games. 1) The arts The arts provide outlets for hobbyists with a special interest in such art forms as dancing, drama, painting, graphic arts and music. Each art forms has many separate possibilities for a hobby. For example, music maybe include singing, playing an instrument, collecting records and tapes, learning ballet, or attending concerts and operas. Painting offers the hobbyists a wide choice of materials, such as oil paints or watercolours. 2) Collecting Collecting is probably the most widespread kind of hobby because anything can be collected. Stamps and coins are probably the most collected items. Hobbyists can also collect such things as autographs, comic books, costumes, baseball cards, buttons, dolls, hatpins, stickers and even matchbooks. 3) Handicrafts Handicrafts attract hobbyists who can work skillfully with their hands. Many hobbyists engage in needlework activities, notably crocheting, needlepoint, knitting and sewing. Hobbyists use kits to make model airplanes, boats and trains. Using woodworking tools, they can create carvings, furniture and bowls. Other handicrafts include ceramics, metalworking, jewelry making, weaving, batik and leatherworking. 4) Games & Sports Games and sports are popular with many hobbyists who enjoy compeitition, physical activities, and healthful exercise. Thousands of hobbyists take part in ports, such as bowling, fishing, mountain climbing, skiing and tennis. These ports give hobbyists the opportunity to display their individual skills and sportsmanship. Popular indoor games include bridge and other card games, backgammon, chess and Monopoly. 5) Other hobbies Electronics-related hobbies are becoming increasingly popular. Many hobbyists enjoy flying model airplanes by remote control or assembling and operating ham radios. Both young people and adults have taken up computers as a hobby, frequently assembling computers from kits. Some people raise pets as a hobby. For many people, gardening and photography are rewarding hobbies.


3. Who were the Hohokam?

300 B.C., the Hohokam, an agricultural group, migrated from Mexico into southern Arizona and settled in villages along the Salt and Gila rivers. As their population grew, they began settling areas around the Gila-Salt heartland. At about A.D. 200, a few Hohokam families apparently moved to the Tucson Basin and built their homes along the Santa Cruz and Rillito rivers. These early villagers introduced a new lifeway into the area. The Archaic people, living in small scattered camps in the basin, gradually absorbed the new lifeway. The adopted the Hohokam "ranchera" style of living, where people occupied widely separated house groups within a village. They began making pottery and digging ditches to water the newly arrived Hohokam varieties of corn, beans, squash, and cotton. These Tucson Basin Hohokam were soon trading for seashells, copying from the Hohokam heartland, and using such typical goods as carved stone bowls and clay human figurines. However, they also retained, in part, the seasonal hunting and gathering of their Archaic predecessors. About half of their food was cultivated in fields, and the rest was collected by villagers who maintained seasonal camps in the mountains and foothills. After A.D. 1100, influence from the heartland Hohokam began to dwindle, and cultural ties were strengthened with the Mogollon people to the north and east, resulting in a blend of Hohokam and Mogollon traits in the Tucson Basin. Around A.D. 1250, villagers began building adobe-walled houses, and Hohokam potters innovated new designs and created a pottery style that was widely copied by groups around the Tucson Basin. By 1350, some people had moved into a few large communities composed of abovegound, apartment-like dwellings, but the population as a whole seems to have declined. The reasons for these cultural changes are not clear, but environmental deterioration (perhaps including droughts) and changes in social organization brought about by the collapse of major cultures in Mesoamerica have both been suggested as possible causes. By 1500, the Tucson Basin Indians had resumed to living in scattered, Hohokam-like rancheras. These people, known today as the Pimas and Papagos, were encountered by the Spanish in the 1600s, when they first entered the Tucson Basin. The Tucson Basin Indians were a small part of the total Hohokam occupation of southern Arizona. This occupation extended from Gila Bend on the west to Globe on the east, and from the north near Flagstaff to near the Arizona-Mexico border in the south. The Gila and Salt River valleys remained the heartland of the Hohokam culture through time. As in the Tucson Basin, the culture of the Hohokam in areas outside the heartland varied in small ways. However, each had in common a sedentary lifestyle, a dependence on agriculture, and a unique ceremonial and trading system.


4. what are the differences in art forms for the different time periods?

When one thinks of medieval art, the period that comprises the work spans more than 1000 years. At the beginning of the period, the styles were limited and the subjects few; however, at the end of the period the styles and subjects had become extremely diverse with many artist practicing their craft in numerous forms. This time frame is generally broken down into different periods and movements such as Celtic, Early Christian, Romanesque, Gothic, Byzantine and other styles. In creating their work the artist drew their inspiration from the heritage of the Romans, the strong influence of the church and later, secular subjects. While many different styles encompass the medieval art form, maybe two of most recognizable are Romanesque and Gothic. These two styles are visible in many different forms throughout the medieval period. The medieval art, in its earliest form, was most often found in the church, being shown in the architecture, the murals and panels found in the religious setting. As was typical and to be expected with artwork that originated in the church, the subjects were religious in nature, frequently showing stories from the Old and New Testaments, often placing them side by side. Early medieval art forms portrayed their subjects, such as the Virgin Mary, as iconic and somewhat two dimensional. As the Romanesque and Gothic forms developed, the subjects were given more depth, frequently being shown interacting in a more personal manner with more three dimensional human qualities. While the many art forms may have originated in the church, as the wealth of the nobility and the upper classes grew, so did their interest in and their desire to acquire and own the art of their own. This caused a change in the subject matter. While religious themes were still quite common, secular, or non-religious themes began to appear. The wealth of the upper class allowed individuals to patronize specific artists, commissioning certain works. Masters opened studios where apprentices studied. Guilds were also formed for the artists. The paintings of the medieval period, generally the Gothic form, can be categorized into four different areas. Frescos, or what could be thought of as wall murals, which involved applying paint to wet plaster which was then allowed to dry to finish the work. Panel paintings, where egg based paints were applied to wooden panels. Manuscript illumination, where books or codices were adorned with artwork or metallic embossing and stained glass, where through the use of colored glass, images were created in windows and other glass panels. The Gothic form led to the use of oil paints in the Renaissance movement that began in the 16th century. Medieval art took on many forms, being seen on tombs, cathedrals, castles and other buildings and private structures in sculptures, engravings and carvings. Medieval art could be seen in furniture, ceramics, tapestries, mosaics, pottery, metal work and glass work. Despite being nearly 700 years old, many fine examples of medieval art work still survive, adorning the walls of private collections, churches and museums all over the globe.

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